Effective drug development
Combining different disciplines, Leiden University researchers work together to formulate innovative solutions to societal problems. Below is an example from the field of health and wellbeing.
From molecule to drug
Fundamental and clinical knowledge is needed to develop new, groundbreaking drugs. Physicians, pharmacists, biochemists, chemists and mathematicians from Leiden University and the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) work closely together in the hunt for the clues and building blocks that could lead the way to new drugs. They also try to make the development process more efficient.
Fundamental knowledge helps us understand and fight disease
Proteins play an important role in the many complex processes in the human body. Knowledge of these processes and the role of proteins in them helps us understand what goes wrong in the body when a person becomes ill. Once chemists have found out which proteins play a crucial role in certain disease processes, they are able to make small molecules that inhibit or alternatively activate these proteins. If we can ensure that these molecules work in an extremely targeted fashion, they can serve as an efficient treatment with the minimum side-effects.
Molecules as building blocks for new drugs
When chemists develop molecules that alter the function of proteins, they draw as much inspiration as possible from nature. This is because it is known that substances that occur naturally are soluble – an essential condition for medication – and that they can survive in cells without disrupting essential bodily processes. This makes the likelihood of success that much greater than with molecules that chemists develop without first knowing what properties they will have. In the next stage of the process, promising molecules are further developed into usable drugs.
Efficient drug development process
Developing suitable molecules into drugs is a process that takes years and that spans from the test tube to testing on healthy test subjects and patients. During this process scientists regularly find that a substance that seemed promising at an early stage falls by the wayside later on, because it does not work as well on living organisms or because it causes side-effects. Better predictive testing is therefore necessary to indicate at an early stage whether a certain molecule will be effective as a medication for humans. Researchers in Leiden use advanced research methods for this, such as the organ-on-a-chip technology that was developed by the Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research. Another method is to test drugs on model organisms such as the zebrafish. This provides an accurate prediction of the effectiveness of drugs.
Leiden University and the LUMC possess knowledge of the whole chain of drug development from fundamental research into suitable molecules right up to the clinic. With the Leiden Bio Science Park just a stone’s throw away, the setting could not be more favourable to work together to make the drug development process as effective as possible.
Knowledge of DNA repair in the fight against tumour cells
The DNA repair mechanism could play an important role in the fight against cancerous cells.
What is the most effective way to eliminate tumour cells? The DNA repair mechanism could play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapy in the fight against cancerous cells. If we are to influence this mechanism, we need fundamental knowledge about how the mechanism works.
Rapid DNA repair limits the effect of chemotherapy
Our DNA repair system ensures that damage to the DNA caused by outside influences, such as radiation or chemical substances, is repaired quickly. If this does not happen, damage can cause a cell to die or mutate, which could result in serious disease. Although this repair system is thus vital, it can also limit the effect of chemotherapy as a cancer treatment, because chemotherapy deliberately causes DNA damage in the hope that the cancer cells will die off. The DNA repair mechanism immediately repairs a great deal of this deliberate DNA damage, thus limiting the effect of the chemotherapy.
Unravelling the DNA repair mechanism
Haico van Attikum, a researcher at the LUMC, therefore focuses his research on unravelling the DNA repair mechanism. Once he has found out which proteins play an important role in the repair of DNA he will be able to start to look for inhibitors that block these proteins. He hopes to be able to disable part of the repair
mechanism in tumour cells by making them much more sensitive to cytostatic drugs (drugs that are used in cancer treatment).
Interface between DNA repair and transcription
In his research Attikum is now focusing on a unique aspect of the DNA repair mechanism: the point when that DNA is read by the enzyme RNA polymerase and translated into mRNA. The question is what happens when RNA-polymerase encounters damage whilst reading the DNA.
If it remains stuck to the DNA, the DNA repair proteins are likely to have insufficient space to repair the DNA damage. If this proves to be the case, Van Attikum and chemists in Leiden want to find specific inhibitors that ensure that the RNA polymerase remains stuck to the DNA and thus prevents DNA repair. This should make tumour cells more sensitive to the chemotherapy that damages the DNA.
The immune system in action against cervical cancer
A vaccine against cervical cancer is now being tested in clinical trials.
In the hunt for a vaccine against cervical cancer, fundamental knowledge about the immune system and organic chemistry have been brought together and have already resulted in a vaccine that is now being tested in clinical trials. Scientists are now working hard on an improved variant.
Protection from invaders
The human body possesses an immune system that protects us from hostile invaders, both from within and outside. Unfortunately, it does not always work as we would like it to. Sometimes it is too active and fights innocent invaders or the body’s own cells, whereas at other times it is not active enough. This is the case with a disease such as cancer.
Researchers led by Professor Ferry Ossendorp (LUMC) have developed a vaccine that activates the immune system to make it fight the tumour cells. Their focus is cervical cancer, which is caused by the human papilloma virus. Unlike the vaccine that teenage girls are given nowadays to prevent the disease, this is not the preventative vaccine but a therapeutic vaccine. It is a form of treatment for women who already have cervical cancer, and its aim is to kill the cancer cells.
What is special about the vaccine is that it is a two-in-one system. It contains long proteins called peptides that are like virus peptides and evoke a specific response from the immune system.
Attached to these peptides are tiny molecules that activate the immune system in a controlled fashion and thus increase the effectiveness of the vaccine. The first version of this vaccine has already been successfully tested in clinical trials. ISA Pharmaceuticals, one of the companies on the Leiden Bio Science Park, will be developing it further.
In the meantime Professor Hermen Overkleeft from the Department of Bio-organic Chemistry and Ossendorp will continue to improve the vaccine by attaching multiple small molecules to the peptides. Immune cells are full of receptors that can recognise various small molecules. The question is whether you can activate these immune cells that bit extra if multiple small molecules (which are attached to the peptides) bind to the different receptors in the immune cells. Further research needs to be conducted to see if this works, but it is hoped that the new variant will deliver even better clinical results.
Professor Gilles van Wezel seeks new forms of antibiotics.
Pathogenic bacteria are increasingly resistant to today’s antibiotics. Professor Gilles van Wezel seeks new forms of antibiotics in good bacteria that live in the soil.
Many of today’s antibiotics are made from a special type of soil bacteria, the Streptomyces. These soil bacteria produce antibiotics that keep other – harmful – bacteria away. It was thought for decades that one of the Streptomyces, the Streptomyces Coelicolor, which has been studied intensively, could produce no more than four different antibiotics. However, it has since been found that these and other Streptomyces contain small groups of antibiotic-producing genes that had not previously been observed. Most of these genes appear to be dormant under laboratory conditions.
Professor of Molecular Biotechnology Gilles van Wezel and his colleagues are looking for molecules that could serve as a switch to wake these sleeping genes and thus produce new types of antibiotics. Researchers
screen libraries of chemical substances, for instance, in the hope that they will come across suitable molecules that could serve as a molecular switch to activate these genes.
Learning from nature
Van Wezel is also focusing his hunt on molecular switches in nature. He explains: ‘You can assume that there are conditions in the soil that cause the
bacteria to produce these sleeping antibiotics. Otherwise these genes would not have been retained so long during evolution.’ He and researchers from Leiden and Wageningen did indeed discover that plants produce a compound that causes Streptomyces to produce antibiotics when another, harmful bacteria comes in the vicinity of the plant. The molecule that the plant produces is thus such a molecular switch. They are now further researching how this can be applied.
Technology with wide range of applications
The study of natural processes in Streptomyces has already resulted in a number of very promising new compounds for new antibiotics. Van Wezel believes that the technology could have a wide range of applications: ‘Streptomyces produce various different compounds to defend themselves from higher organisms like fungi and worms. These could form the basis of all sorts of drugs. Various anti-tumour drugs also come from Streptomyces, for instance. I think that you are much more likely to find completely new substances if you take this route than if you screen a general library of chemical substances. This approach works.’
New techniques for tuberculosis treatment
Research into new treatment for tuberculosis has received fresh stimulus.
About nine million people worldwide contract tuberculosis each year. Research into new treatment for this disease has received fresh stimulus with more efficient techniques and a new understanding of how the tuberculosis bacteria works.
The tuberculosis bacteria is becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Molecular cell biologist Herman Spaink is therefore seeking new drugs to fight these bacteria. He is researching how the tuberculosis bacteria works and how to stop the disease. Spaink: ‘People with TB suffer from rapid weight loss, which is one of the first symptoms of the disease. Thanks to our research we now know that this is because the bacteria influence a specific gene. This enables the bacteria to disrupt the human metabolism. We want to use medication to protect this specific gene.’
Molecules are the building blocks for new drugs. When molecules are found that could potentially fight tuberculosis they need to be tested. The zebrafish is an ideal model organism for this research. The immune system of the zebrafish responds in the same way to the tuberculosis bacteria as the human immune system
does, which makes for a more accurate prediction of whether a drug will work in humans than with other models. Furthermore, the zebrafish has a fast reproductive cycle and its embryos develop rapidly. The most important organs have already formed within 24 hours and the young fish hatch out of the egg within three days. As the young fish, which still look like embryos, are small and transparent, they can easily be studied under a microscope, making it easy to follow the development and progression of tuberculosis.
The purchase of a robot that can inject a large number of zebrafish embryos with the TB bacteria
at the same time has given a huge boost to Spaink’s research. Previously the bacteria needed to be manually injected into the zebrafish embryos. This was very labour intensive and thus delayed the part of the research that involved testing new drugs. The automation of the injection process has enabled Spaink’s team to work much faster and more efficiently. Furthermore, robots and automatic recognition of microscopic images have recently made it possible to test the effect of new drugs on zebrafish embryos at an exceedingly rapid rate. Spaink hopes that with these new methods he will soon discover new drugs that work against TB, a disease that affects a third of the world’s population.
Searching for disease indicators in healthy people
LUMC researchers are looking for factors that point to illness at an early stage.
Prevention is better than cure. In order to be able to predict who will become ill, LUMC researchers are looking for factors that point in this direction at an early stage. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is following nearly 7,000 overweight patients in order to identify predicting factors in their blood for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, osteoarthritis and lung disease. The first research results were published recently.
Nearly half of the Dutch adult population falls within the overweight range. This is associated with health risks, including an increased risk of contracting diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is unclear why some overweight people develop a chronic disease while others do not. This also makes timely intervention difficult in people who are at high risk, especially since they form such a substantial population.
‘We did what could not be done’
To investigate this further, the LUMC launched the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study in 2008 under the leadership of Professor Frits Rosendaal. In the first four years, Rosendaal and his colleagues examined nearly 7,000 patients from the Leiden region, most of whom fell within the overweight range (BMI of 27 or higher).
Rosendaal explains: ‘What was remarkable was that we examined these people in great detail. Usually, with such large groups, researchers only take blood samples and ask the subjects to complete some questionnaires. We carried out an extensive examination of each patient that took about four hours and included an MRI scan, a lung function test, a cardiogram and a nutritional test. Nothing like this had ever been done before. We did what could not be done.’ What is also remarkable is that these are healthy people whose entire health profile is being monitored, together with the potential development of any condition. ‘This is an investment that allows us to create a treasure trove of data,’ he says enthusiastically.
‘Ideally we would like to follow these people throughout their life. Last year we did a follow-up via the participants’ GPs to find out which ones had become ill. We may ask people to return for a more extensive examination at some point, but that depends on funding. We hope that we will also be able to observe the effects of changes over time.’
In the documentary ‘Why me?’ professor Frits Rosendaal and his colleagues give insight in how they work as ‘medical detectives’ in their search for the causes of diseases. The film focuses on the NEO study. Complete version 'Why me?' (35 minutes)
Having fat around your organs is bad
The study has been going for a number of years, so the first results are coming in. One of the discoveries is that our health depends on where exactly fat is stored: just under the skin or around the organs. The two look the same from the outside. ‘We can use the MRI scans to determine the distribution of fat. It turns out that people with fat
around their organs suffer more frequently from reduced insulin sensitivity, which is an early form of diabetes.’
Ultimately, Rosendaal hopes to be able to establish many more such links. ‘Nearly all diseases occur more frequently in people who are overweight. This is not something that we really understand at this point. It looks as though all illnesses start out in the same way, and in this study we hope to discover whether this is indeed the case. This knowledge can then be used to develop new therapies and drugs.’
A vaccine against thickened artery walls
People suffering from atherosclerosis have to take medicine all their lives.
Atherosclerosis (thickening of the artery wall) is the most common cause of heart attacks or strokes, and one of the most common causes of death in the western world. People with this condition have to take medicine all their lives, so a vaccine for atherosclerosis would be a breakthrough.
Containing the inflammation response
In cases of atherosclerosis the inside of the blood vessel becomes clogged with cholesterol from the blood, caused by an excess of cholesterol in the blood. At the place where the blockage
develops, white blood cells force their way into the wall of the blood vessel and cause inflammation, so in a way atherosclerosis is an exaggerated defensive reaction against the body’s own tissue. Johan Kuiper, Professor of Therapeutic Immunomodulation, has been awarded a large European grant for a project that aims to use a vaccine to contain or even prevent the inflammation response. A vaccine against infection by a bacterium or virus is directed at making the immune system more alert and aims to prepare for a strong defensive reaction. That happens by stimulating the production of immune cells of a certain type (CD8+ T-cells) that attack that one specific intruder.
However, vaccination can also lead to a situation where the immune system does not react to something that would normally cause an inflammation response. Kuiper’s vaccine stimulates the production of another kind of immune cells (CD4+ T-cells) that have a reduced effect on inflammations. These T-cells recognise the body’s own proteins in the wall of the blood vessel and reduce the auto-immune reaction to these proteins.
Taking pills for life could be a thing of the past
In the most favourable case, a vaccine against atherosclerosis would only have to be administered a few times, after which the body has long-term protection. That is a much more positive outlook than a life of taking medicine to keep the cholesterol content of the blood down – something that more than a million Dutch people do at the moment.
Making the most of the first time a medicine is administered to humans
Collecting as much information as possible about administering a new medicine to people can save a lot of money.
Collecting as much information as possible about administering a new medicine to people can save a lot of money in the further development of a medicine and increase the safety for patients. Moreover, it quickly becomes clear if a promising substance does not in fact make a suitable medicine. The Centre for Human Drug Research (CHDR) in Leiden has developed methods to reach these goals.
How do you measure the desirable and undesirable effects of a potential new medicine using healthy volunteers and patients? How do you translate the available knowledge from the laboratory to safe and informative experiments with human test subjects? Which measurements, tests or scans provide the most trustworthy information? This is the sort of question that CHDR’s clinical pharmacologists are looking to answer. Medicines are tested here on
a daily basis, usually commissioned by sponsors from the pharmaceutical industry but also very often in collaboration with researchers from LUMC and Leiden University. In the past, new medicines were only developed by the pharmaceutical industry, but a growing number of medicines are being developed directly in the LUMC.
CHDR researches medicines for various complaints and illnesses: from pain to dementia, from multiple sclerosis to heart disease and vascular conditions, from psychiatric disorders to thrombosis. A new medicine is usually tested first on healthy volunteers. Even though they are not ill and have no pain, focused tests can still yield a lot of useful information. It then becomes clear whether the medicine reaches the place where it needs to work (for example, the brain), and various effects can also be identified, for example if the test subject becomes less alert after taking the medicine. With imaging techniques such as PET scans and MRI it is possible to see where the medicine ends up, and whether it causes changes. In order to measure the effect of a painkiller, the CHDR has a number of ‘painful’ tests, such as alternating heat and cold. The clinical pharmacologists also check at intervalsto see if there is a connection between changes in the test subject and the concentration of the medicine in the blood. If that change (for example pain relief, or a side effect such as dizziness) becomes more noticeable as the amount of medicine increases, it is probably an effect of that medicine.
Healthy or ill test subjects
In recent years CHDR has done more and more research with patients, and there is room enough for that in the new building in the Leidse BioScience Park, where the whole of the top floor is dedicated to healthy or ill test subjects. Studies are sometimes also conducted with patients in the LUMC or the VUmc in Amsterdam. In all cases the studies are concerned with small numbers of patients, who are monitored to see whether the new medicine can live up to its promise in any way. CHDR focuses mainly on these early phases of the development of new medicines, although over the last few years the research institute in Leiden has also conducted comparative studies with hundreds of patients. Such a large study is a significant investment for pharmaceutical companies, so it is a great advantage if, thanks to the research at CHDR, it becomes clear at an early stage if a promising substance is not appropriate after all, or if a better estimate can be made of the safest and most effective dose. For patients the benefit is just as clear: an effective treatment with as few side effects as possible.
Scientists working in this multidisciplinary research area
Dr. Haico van AttikumAssociate Professor Human Genetics
Topics: DNA repair pathways, RNA, genetics, tumors
Prof. dr. Joke BouwstraProfessor of Drug Delivery
Topics: Drug delivery into and across the skin
Prof. dr. Jaap Brouwer Professor of Molecular Genetics
Topics: Molecular Genetics, scientific director Leiden Institute of Chemistry
Prof. dr. Adam CohenProfessor of Clinical Pharmacology
Topics: Centre for Human Drug Research, human testing of drugs
Prof. dr. Peter ten DijkeProfessor of Molecular Cell Biology
Topics: Tumorcells, bone formation, ageing
Prof. dr. Miranda van EckProfessor of Cardio Vascular and Metabolic Therapeutics
Topics: Macrophage genes, artherosclerosis, cholesterol
Prof. dr. Piet Hein van der GraafProfessor of Systems Pharmacology
Topics: Pharmacology, scientific director Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research
Prof. dr. Henk Jan GuchelaarProfessor of Clinical Pharmacology
Topics: Pharmacy, cancer, reumathology
Prof. dr. Thomas HankemeierProfessor of Analytical Biosciences
Topics: Metabolomics, organ-on-a-chip, organs
Dr. Jan den HartighHead Department of Farmaceutical Quality Control & Bioanalysis
Topics: Hospital Pharmacist, drug research in lab
Prof. dr. Catherijne KnibbeProfessor of Fundamentals of Individual Pharmacology
Topics: Dosing schemes, children’s medicine, pharmocology
Prof.dr. Johan KuiperProfessor of Therapeutic Immunomodulation
Topics: Atherosclerosis, immune cells, vaccin
Prof. dr. Gijs van der MarelProfessor of Synthetic Organic Chemistry
Topics: Immune system, nucleic acids, peptides, carbohydrates
Prof. dr. ir. Silvere van de MaarelProfessor of Medical Epigenetics
Topics: Human genome, muscular dystrohpy, disease mechanisms, epigenetics
Prof. dr. Huib OvaaProfessor in Chemical Biology
Topics: Early diagnosis of cancer, cancer treatment, biochemical processes related to cancer
Prof. dr. Ferry OssendorpProfessor of Vaccine Biology
Topics: Immune system, vaccination, tumors. infectious diseases
Prof. dr. Hermen OverkleeftProfessor of Bio-organic Synthesis
Topics: Bio-organic chemistry, immunology
Prof. dr. Frits RosendaalHead of Department Clinical Epidemyology
Topics: Thrombosis, cardiac conditions, cerebral infarctions, cerebral haemorrhages. NEO-study
Dr. Kirsten SchimmelHead of Pharmaceutical Development & Drug Preparation
Topics: Hospital pharmacist
Prof. dr. Herman SpainkProfessor of Molecular Cell Biology
Topics: Communication of cells, microbes, disease models, tuberculosis
Dr. Jesse SwenAssociate Professor of Pharmacogenetics
Topics: Personalized medicine, hospital pharmacist, pharmacogenetics, drug response and DNA.
Dr. Mario van der SteltAssociate Professor in Medicinal Chemistry
Topics: Medicinal chemistry, medical marihuana, chemical biology, drug discovery
Prof. dr. Hans TankeProfessor of Molecular Cell Biology
Topics: Cells, chromosomes, inherited disease, acquired disease, point-of-care testing, drug monitoring
Dr. Marcel TijstermanProfessor of Genome Stability
Topics: DNA-repair, genetic mutations, evolution, cancer
Prof. dr. Marcellus UbbinkProfessor of Protein Chemistry
Topics: Proteins, proteine interactions, enzymes
Prof. dr. Bob van de WaterProfessor of Drug Safety Sciences
Topics: Drug safety
Prof. dr. Gilles van Wezel Professor of Molecular Biotechnology
Topics: Antibiotics and resistence, molecular microbiology, microbial interactions in the soil, molecular switches, genomics
Prof. dr. Ad IJzermanProfessor of Medicinal Chemistry
Topics: Molecular mechanisms of drug action
Outreach & News
Science at the heart of society
Our research extends further than the academic world alone. Our researchers share their knowledge in schools and museums, at events and via accessible public symposiums. In this way they bring science into the heart of society.
How western and Chinese medicine can strengthen each otherhttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2017/02/how-western-and-chinese-medicine-can-strengthen-each-other
Staying healthy with big datahttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/10/staying-healthy-with-big-data
Six million boost to search for new antibioticshttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/09/six-million-boost-to-search-for-new-antiobiotics
Medical student wins bronze medal in Riohttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/08/medical-student-wins-bronze-medal-in-rio
Brains react differently to ADHD medication than expectedhttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/07/brains-react-differently-to-adhd-medication-than-expected
Cancer cells play hide-and-seek with immune systemhttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/06/cancer-cells-playhide-and-seek-with-immune-system
Dual appointment of seven new Medical Delta professorshttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/06/dual-appointment-of-secen-new-medical-delta-professors
Stefano Coppola Receives AXA RF Fellowship to Study Pancreatic Cancerhttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/06/stefano-coppola-receives-axa-rf-fellowship-to-study-pancreatic-cancer
Halting protein degradation may contribute to new cancer treatmenthttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/05/halting-protein-decompositionmay-contribute-to-new-cancer-medicine
TOP-PUNT grant awarded to prof. Gijs van der Marelhttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/06/top-punt-grant-awarded-to-gijs-van-der-marel
Breakthrough by Leiden researchers in Pompe diseasehttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/05/breakthrough-by-leiden-researchers-in-pompe-disease
Cancer cell mechanism found to be used against itselfhttp://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2016/01/cancer-cell-mechanism-found-to-be-used-against-itself
New technique to study vascular growthhttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2015/12/new-technique-to-study-vascular-growth
New method of detecting virus developmenthttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/news/2015/12/new-method-of-detecting-rapid-virus-development
Different medication dosage for morbidly obese patientshttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/different-medicine-dosage.html
Inaugural lecture Miranda van Eck: Detergent tablets for clean, grease-free blood vesselshttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/miranda-van-eck-inaugural-lecture-detergent-tablets-for-clean-grease-free-blood-vessels-.html
New insights into the production of antibiotics by bacteriahttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/new-insights-into-the-production-of-antibiotics-by-bacteria.html
Research shows protein movement is importanthttp://www.news.leiden.edu/news-2015/research-shows-protein-movement-is-important.html
New measuring method facilitates drug researchhttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/new-measuring-method-facilitates-drug-research.html
Cellular therapy promising treatment for arteriosclerosishttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/cellular-therapy-could-be-used-to-combat-arteriosclerosis.html
Taking a closer look at resistance to tuberculosis bacteriahttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/taking-a-closer-look-at-tuberculosis.html
Leiden researchers discover genes that affect spread of breast cancerhttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/genes-discovered-that-have-effect-on-spread-of-breast-cancer.html
Extreme obesity calls for individualized medicationhttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/extreme-obesity.html
ERC Starting Grant for chemist Sander van Kasterenhttp://news.leiden.edu/news-2015/erc-grant-for-sander-van-kasteren.html
Promising protein discovered for new drugs against tuberculosishttp://www.news.leiden.edu/news-2014/promising-protein-discovered-for-new-drugs-against-tuberculosis.html
Waking sleeping antibioticshttp://www.research.leiden.edu/news/sleeping-antibiotics.html
8 March - Cell Observatory Mini-Symposiumhttps://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/events/2017/03/cell-observatory-mini-symposium
23 November - PhD Defence M.C. van Staveren 'DPD screening to prevent toxicity in fluoropyrimidine treated patient'https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/events/2016/11/dpd-screening-to-prevent-toxicity-in-fluoropyrimidine-treated-patient
Students learn directly from our researchers
- MSc Biology http://en.mastersinleiden.nl/programmes/biology/en/introduction
- MSc Biomedical Sciences http://www.mastersinleiden.nl/programmes/biomedical-sciences/en/introduction
- MSc Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences http://www.mastersinleiden.nl/programmes/bio-pharmaceutical-sciences/en/introduction
- MSc Chemistry http://www.mastersinleiden.nl/programmes/chemistry/en/introduction
- MSc Life Science & Technology http://www.mastersinleiden.nl/programmes/life-science-technology/en/introduction
- Summer School Bio-Pharmaceutical Sciences https://www.science.leidenuniv.nl/en/information-for-students/summer-schools/bio-pharmaceutical-sciences-summer-school
Multidisciplinary research plays an integral part in the programmes in biomedical and biopharmaceutical sciences, as it does in the biology, chemistry and life and molecular science and technology programmes. Lecturers in these programmes frequently draw on the wealth of knowledge and experience available in Leiden on drugs research. The Leiden Futurelab is a platform for a new postgraduate programme in drug development. The programme gives graduates a thorough training for a career in management in the Life Sciences and Health sector.Fundamental research Watch video